Motor controller information
The same Motor Controller is used for the 2000X, 2000XR and 2000XR+. The 2000XR and 2000XR+ has some modifications not present on the 2000X Motor Controller. The 1500X uses a different Motor Controller.
The information below concerns the 2000XR controller.
I hope to figure out how the motor controller works and look for second source replacement parts. (None of the information has been verified)
Description of operation
Theoretically it would be possible to connect the motors directly to the battery with a simple on/off switch and no motor controller would be needed. The operator would have no control over speed, however. The motor controller was designed to give the operator control over speed, indicate faults, and provide some safety features to protect the operator as well as the motorboard.
To control speed the microprocessor reads the position of the throttle and sends pulses to the power transistors. The longer the pulses, the more power that goes from the battery to the motor.
My board is labeled
- ST2-1 REV:0.2
The following components are included:
- U1 - PIC16F73-I/SO 28/40-pin, 8-bit CMOS FLASH Microcontrollers by Microchip (marking PIC16F73-I/SO4AP 05193TV)
- U3 - 78L05 4L05
CON1 - place for 3 pin connector, not installed
- 1 (near R7) connected to VSS
- 2 connected to GND
- 3 connected to U1/23 PORTB.2
CON2 is the connector to the throttle. It is labeled
- See main article Throttle_information
- VR1.1 - green
- VR2.1 - black
- GND - brown
- HC - loop (harness connect, indicates if cable connected to PCB)
- HC - loop
- LED3 - orange GREEN LED
- LED2 - yellow YELLOW LED
- LED1 - blue RED LED
- VCC - red
- NC - purple
- X1 - 8.000 crystal
- BZ - buzzer (which by the way can't be heard because Roth left on the paper cap.)
- OPT - optical counter
- R1 - Marking Code 3301 - 3.3K ohm
- R2 - Marking Code 1001 - 1K ohm
- R3 - Marking Code 472 - 4.7K ohm
- R4 - Marking Code 0 - Jumper
- R5 - Marking Code 104 - 100K ohm
- R6 - Marking Code 472 - 4.7K ohm
- R7 - Marking Code 472 - 4.7K ohm
- R8 - Marking Code 1001 - 1K ohm
- R9 - Marking Code 6800 - 680 ohm
- R10 - Marking Code 103 - 10K ohm
- R11 - Marking Code 472 - 4.7K ohm
- R12 - Marking Code 5100 - 510 ohm
- R13 - Marking Code 5100 - 510 ohm
- R14 - Marking Code 5100 - 510 ohm
- R16 - Not Installed
- R17 - Not Installed
- R18 - Marking Code 100 - 10 ohm
Diodes and Power Transistors
- D1 - Opti MOS 2 Power-Transistor Type IPD05N03LA Package P-TO252-3-11 Marking 05N03LA
- Q1 - Opti MOS 2 Power-Transistor Type IPD05N03LA Package P-TO252-3-11 Marking 05N03LA
- Q4 - J3 or D9D - HMBT8050 or S8050LT1 - NPN Epitaxial Transistor - Package SOT-23
- Q5 - K3 or B9D - HMBT8550 or S8550LT1 - PNP Epitaxial Transistor - Package SOT-23
- Q7 - J3 or D9D - HMBT8050 or S8050LT1 - NPN Epitaxial Transistor - Package SOT-23
- Q8 - J3 or D9D - HMBT8050 or S8050LT1 - NPN Epitaxial Transistor - Package SOT-23
- Q9 - J3 or D9D - HMBT8050 or S8050LT1 - NPN Epitaxial Transistor - Package SOT-23
PIC pinout (right hand side of chip)
- 14 RC3/SCK/SCL - PORTC Digital I/O. Synchronous serial clock input/output for SPI mode. Synchronous serial clock input/output for I2C mode.
- 13 RC2/CCP1 - PORTC Digital I/O. Capture1 input/Compare1 output/PWM1 output.
- 12 RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 - PORTC Digital I/O. Timer1 oscillator input. Capture2 input, Compare2 output, PWM2 output.
- 11 RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI - PORTC Digital I/O. Timer1 oscillator output. Timer1 external clock input.
- 10 OSC2/CLKOUT - Oscillator crystal or clock output.
- 9 OSC1/CLKIN - Oscillator crystal or external clock input
- 8 VSS - Ground reference for logic and I/O pins
- 7 RA5/AN4/SS - PORTA Digital I/O. SPI slave select input. Analog input 4.
- 6 RA4/T0CKI - PORTA Digital I/O – Open drain when configured as output. Timer0 external clock input.
- 5 RA3/AN3/VREF - PORTA Digital I/O. Analog input 3. A/D reference voltage input.
- 4 RA2/AN2 - PORTA Digital I/O. Analog input 2.
- 3 RA1/AN1 - PORTA Digital I/O. Analog input 1.
- 2 RA0/AN0 - PORTA Digital I/O. Analog input 0.
- 1 dot, MCLR/VPP - Master Clear (input) or programming voltage (output), RESET to the device, Programming voltage input.
PIC pinout (left hand side of chip)
- 15 RC4/SDI/SDA - PORTC Digital I/O. SPI data in. I2C data I/O.
- 16 RC5/SDO - PORTC Digital I/O. SPI data out.
- 17 RC6/TX/CK - PORTC Digital I/O. USART asynchronous transmit. USART 1 synchronous clock.
- 18 RC7/RX/DT - PORTC Digital I/O. USART asynchronous receive. USART synchronous data.
- 19 VSS - Ground reference for logic and I/O pins
- 20 VDD - Positive supply for logic and I/O pins.
- 21 RB0/INT - PORTB Digital I/O. External interrupt.
- 22 RB1 - PORTB Digital I/O. (tied to VDD)
- 23 RB2 - PORTB Digital I/O.
- 24 RB3/PGM - PORTB Digital I/O. Low voltage ICSP programming enable pin.
- 25 RB4 - PORTB Digital I/O.
- 26 RB5 - PORTB Digital I/O.
- 27 RB6/PGC - PORTB Digital I/O. In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP programming clock.
- 28 RB7/PGD - PORTB Digital I/O. In-Circuit Debugger and ICSP programming data.
The 2000X board looks identical to the 2000XR board at first glance. There are some exceptions, no cap near the C5 pads. The pads and label are there, just the component is not there. Also, where the 2000XR has a board rev and date, the 2000X just has WT-5143-3/-5.
A member of the motorboard community has derived the overall schematic of the Motor Controller. There are no guarantee as to the accuracy of this schematic, please send corrections if you find any.
Motor Control Schematic (pdf)
2000X to 2000XR Upgrade
Apparently, the same controller is used in a 2000X and a 2000XR, so the only thing needed to upgrade a 2000X to a 2000XR is a cable. See here:
LEDs Indicators (Battery sense)
When you turn the motorboard ON, the green light goes on then off, then the yellow light goes on then off then the red light goes on then off and then the green light goes on solid. Then the operator pushes to go.
When the battery gets low, the YELLOW light will illuminate. When the battery gets critically low, the RED light will illuminate. When the battery is almost dead, the red light will blink and the buzzer on the motor contoller PCB will beep on and off until the battery reaches the low power shut off.
The motorboard has an automatic low power shut off. If low power is detected the red LED will blink, and power will be shut off completely.
The low battery indication (YELLOW and RED) can also occur if the motors become disconnected from the Motor Controller. If the charge indicates GREEN, but the throttle indicates YELLOW or RED, check for a broken or loose connection.
If the PIC microprocessor crashes, three Speed Controller lights (green, yellow, and red) will be illuminated. If this occurs, stop riding immediately, and turn the motorboard OFF, wait five seconds and then turn it ON.
Because there is no indication that the motor is moving less than 3mph, if the optical wheel fails for any reason the motorboard will not function and there will be no indication as to the cause of failure.
Sources for damage
- The manual says to always turn the power ON before riding. Operating the motorboard with the power switch in the OFF position may damage the electronics, presumably by generating electricity.
- The manual also says to never attempt to drive the motorboard in reverse, because this may damage the electronics, presumably by generating electricity in reverse polarity.
- The controller may crash due to a sharp bump during acceleration, or if the rear wheel was not on the ground during acceleration.
- It is obvious that the motorboard should not be immersed in water because it will damage the motor controller.
- The power switch should be turned OFF and the battery should be disconnected before doing any repairs to the Motor Controller, Motors or cabling. It is possible that an intermittent connection, or short could damage the controller.
- If the motors are strained, they will overheat. This can cause the connectors to melt or the MOSFETs to burn out.
The biggest risk is overworking the motors causing the Mosfets to burn out. Replacing a Mosfet by soldering a new one in its place would be much cheaper and faster than ordering a new board.
A community member has reported that it is possible (though not recommended!) to bypass the Motor Controller. It is possible to install an on-off switch on the handle bars and the wired the battery pack directly to the 2 motors. Turn on the switch to ride, and turn off to slow down, using the hand brake to come to a stop. While this may work, it would make the motorboard hard to control and possibly dangerous.
I just wanted to let you know that I successfully tested out a controller which fits the Motorboard, however, it doesn't work with the 14.4 volts used by the 2000X model. I wanted to use the full 18+ volts potential of the motors, therefore, I chose to use a modified 24 volts controller. To fit this controller, I customized 2 types of battery: 1) A NiMh 18 volts and 14 Ah which yields a range of 10+ miles (tested by 155pounds rider on uneven terrain) and 17miles/hour speed; 2) A li-ion polymer 18.5 volts and 8Ah which I haven't tested yet for range. The last battery is 20% more powerful than the 16.5 volts 6.9 Ah made for the XR+.
I'm not sure what the deal is with Roth Motors Company, but I didn't want to wait for their long awaited 2009 controller which will hopefully work. So far I burned about 10 original controllers in my attempt to test higher voltages for higher speed. I also realized that the company offers misleading numbers for their XR+ battery which is not 18 volts and 8Ah as they claim since it uses 5 cells with a nominal voltage of 3.3volts each and 2.3Ah. Working the numbers you only get 16.5 volts (5cells x 3.3volts)and (3 parallel cells x 2.3 Ah) 6.9Ah for the whole battery pack. They sell that one for a staggering $450.
I don't want to confuse you with a lot of numbers, but to give you an idea, anyone can buy an a123systems nanosafe battery pack with similar power for around $200 so I don't see where the other $250 go for. Anyway, the whole point is that this company had the best designed electrical scooter on the market, however, the battery and the controller were almost always defective or not powerful enough. I will test out my other battery and in a short while you have the option to ride a Motorboard which is great not only on the outside, but also on the inside! I only made 2 controllers so far and it will take me another 2 to 3 weeks to fully test them and to come up with a package solution for all the Motorboard passionates out there! Later gators! Ride With Passion!!!